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First semester
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Learning outcomes of the course unit

Provide knowledge about the nature of toxic effects of xenobiotics. Provide the general principles of risk assessment

Knowledge and understanding applied skills
1) To apply the knowledge of the mechanisms of action of xenobiotic to define their toxicological activity and relayed risk

Judgment autonomy
1) To evaluate the validity of results deriving from the risk assessment proces in independent manner

Communicative Skills
1) Possess the ability to synthesize information and effectively communicate it to specialists and non-specialists.

Learning Skills
1) Develop skills and methodology that will allow you to study in a highly indipendent way.
2) Updating the knowledge through the consultation of scientific databases


pharmacology class

Course contents summary

toxic action of xenobiotics and the main regulatory aspects; epidemiology

Course contents

General Section

· General principles of toxicology.

· Mechanisms of toxicity. Toxicity test.

· Absorption, distribution and excretion of toxic substances.

· Biotransformation of xenobiotics.

· Carcinogenesis, teratogenesis, mutagenesis.


special section

· Experimental toxicology, epidemiology and toxicological risk assessment.

· Idiosyncratic reactions and allergic diseases, interactions between xenobiotics.

· Toxicology of pesticides, metals, solvents, PAHs, PCB.

· Environmental Toxicology, gas

· food and nutrition Toxicology, Food Additives and Contaminants. Regulatory agencies.

· Occupational Toxicology

· Toxicology of biotechnology products.

Recommended readings

teacher's slides

-ERNEST HODGSON: “Tossicologia Moderna”, EdiSES

-CASARETT & DOULL’S: "Tossicologia: fondamenti dell’azione delle sostanze tossiche", Ed. EMSI,


-W.A. HAYES: "Principles and Methods of Toxicology", III Edition, Raven Press.

Tossicologia generale e applicata ai farmaci. Balduini-Costa. Ed EDRA

Teaching methods

The lessons will be mainly frontal. The slides used to support lessons, as an integral part of the teaching material, will be provided directly to the students and uploaded on the Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral examination, Scale of assessment: 0-30
Weights and evaluation criteria:
1) Acquired knowledge (up to 16/30);
2) Ability to apply the acquired knowledge and to make connections between the covered topics (up to 9/30);
3) capacity to communicate concepts through the use of the specific language of the discipline (up to 5/30).