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First semester
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Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course of PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACOTERAPY, as well as toxicology and pathology, provides the body of knowledge in biomedical field needed to face the problems concerning the development and the utilization of drugs.
Le lessons are aimed to promote knowledge and understanding of the essential concepts specific to general and special pharmacology with the purpose to enrich applying knowledge of the students which will be able to exert making judgements based on learning skills and communication skills on both the experimental development of a new drug and the protocols of clinical practice. In detail, the student should be able to:
1. Understand the mechanisms of action of drugs, the pharmacokinetic processes to which they are subject depending on the different routes of administration, the sources of response variability, the side effects/adverse effects of the drugs, (Knowledge and understanding)
2. Recognize interactions drug/drug, drug/herbal and drug/foods, apply scientific evidence of the benefit/risk ratio that provide clinically useful drugs (Applying knowledge and understanding)
3. To be able to use the specific language of the discipline and to expose the peculiarities and the results of the experimental studies (Communication skills)
4. Know how to evaluate the clinical role of a drug as a function of its effectiveness and safety compared to other drugs with the same therapeutic indication. (Making judgments)
5. Link the different pharmacological topics treated with the issues of other CdS characterizing disciplines such as pharmaceutical technology and chemistry. Upgrade by consulting literature database. (Learning Skills)

Course contents summary

A first series of lessons deals with general topics such as drug invention, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokynetics (with relative parameters), unwanted effects and drug toxicity (indices of safety), individual variation and drug interaction, design and optimization of dosage regimens, elements of clinical pharmacology.
The second part of the course is devoted to the study of various classes of drugs affecting peripheral and central neurotransmission and therapeutics concerning current treatment of cardiovascular, gastroenterological, respiratory, endocrinological, central, inflammatory, microbial and neoplastic diseases

Course contents

- Pharmacodynamics: drug targets, qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug-- target interactions;
- Pharmacokinetics: determinants of plasma drug concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters
- Sources of variability in individual response to drugs
- Side effects of drugs and safety in therapeutics
- Development of new drugs and clinical trials

- Drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system
- Drugs acting on Neuromuscular Junction
- Drugs affecting the Central Nervous System
- Drugs affecting Gastrointestinal Tract
- Drugs affecting renal and cardiovascular system
- Drugs affecting the Respiratory System
- Pharmacological control of Hemostasis
- Pharmacological control of inflammatory and immune response
- Hints of Endocrine Pharmacology
- Antibacterial chemotherapy

Recommended readings

ANNUNZIATO & DI RENZO “Trattato di Farmacologia”. Idelson-Gnocchi, Napoli
KATZUNG BG. “Farmacologia Generale e Clinica”. Piccin, Padova
RANG HP et al. “Farmacologia” . Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano
GOODMAN & GILMAN’S. “Le basi farmacologiche della terapia”. Zanichelli Editore

Teaching methods

Teaching is based on frontal lessons in which the problems related to experimental pharmacology and pharmacotherapy are critically illustrated. The slides used to support the lessons will be uploaded weekly on the Elly platform and online subscription is required to download them. Slides are considered an integral part of teaching material. Literature papers, Institutional Guidelines, and Position Papers of Scientific Societies will be also available on Elly platform to support teaching activities as authoritative tools to stimulate students' autonomous learning ability,.

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of the achievement of the objectives of the course will include an oral examination which will also evaluate the communication skills of the candidate. Through questions concerning the general part of the course will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of pharmacology. Through questions regarding pharmacotherapy will be determined whether the student has achieved the aim of applying the acquired knowledge to the problems inherent in everyday clinical practice by demonstrating ability to learn and to formulate independent judgments. At the end of each oral exam, lasting about 45 minutes, the outcome of the test is immediately communicated to the candidate. In special cases, students can attend to written exam (open questions)

Other informations

The teacher is available to receive the students all the days after contact by e-mai