ANIMAL BIOLOGY - HUMAN ANATOMY

Credits: 
10
Site: 
PARMA
Year of erogation: 
2020/2021
Unit Coordinator: 
Semester: 
First semester
Language of instruction: 

Italian

Modules: 

Learning outcomes of the course unit

Dublin descriptor 1: Knowledge and understanding
The Animal Biology/Human Anatomy course has been designed to provide students with the most up-to-date scientific information in the fields of evolutionary biology, molecular biology and cellular biology, as well as provide the biological foundation required to understand reproductive processes and embryogenesis in major animal groups. Furthermore, the course aims to provide students with the fundamental knowledge of the organization of tissues and organs of the human body.

Dublin descriptor 2: Applying knowledge and understanding
The fundamental knowledge of Animal biology/Human anatomy is applied to pharmaceutical sciences.

Dublin descriptor 3: Making judgements
Students must be able to manage a discussion about the organization and functioning of living systems at different levels: from molecules to cells and individuals. In addition, students must be able to sustain a discussion based on elements of human anatomy.

Dublin descriptor 4: Communication skills
The student must acquire a technical language to present and discuss fundamental biological processes of living animals and human anatomy.

Dublin descriptor 5: Learning skills
The student must be able to read and commentate a scientific text dealing with animal biology and human anatomy topics.

To achieve these objectives the student will acquire the basic knowledge of biology, genetics, embriology and human anatomy with particular reference to the structure, function, reproduction and evolution of the eukaryotic animal cell.

Prerequisites

Fundamentals in the field of general biology and zoology

Course contents summary

LIVING SYSTEMS ORGANIZATION;

EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF BIODIVERSITY;

THE ANIMAL CELL;

GENETICS;

MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL ADAPTATIONS;

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY;

ANIMAL TAXONOMY.

The human body: concept of organ, apparatus and system. Tissues: the epithelium of the skin, the glandular epithelia, the connective, the cartilage, the bone, the muscular and the nervous tissue. The tegument: microscopic anatomy of the skin and of the cutaneous elements. The locomotion apparatus: general characteristics and classification of bones, articulations and muscle. The cardiovascular apparatus: heart, the great and the small blood circulation. Structure of the arteries, veins and capillaries. The digestive apparatus: oral cavity, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Associated glands: liver, pancreas. The peritoneum. The respiratory apparatus: nose cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. The pleura. The urinary apparatus: kidney and urinary tract. The genital apparatus: morphology and structure of the masculine gonad (testicle) and of the female gonad (ovaio). Ovarian cycle. Decription of uterine tubes, uterus. The endocrine apparatus: general characteristics and structural organization of endocrine glands (thyroid, parathyroid, hypophysis, epiphysis, adrenal glands, thymus, Langerhans islets). The nervous system: organization of central nervous system and its components (spinal cord, encephalic trunk, cerebellum, diencephalon and telencephalon). Main ways of general sensitivity and of motor system. General organization of peripheral and autonomic nervous system. Organs of sense: general notions of the anatomy of the ear and of the eye.

Course contents

LIVING SYSTEMS ORGANIZATION
Hierarchical organization. Molecules and their bonds. Macromolecules and their functions. Cellular theory of life.

EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF BIODIVERSITY
The origin of life. Biological and cultural evolution. Individual selection, sexual selection, kin selection, Group selection, cooperative altruism. Origin and evolution of vertebrates. Evolution of mankind.

THE ANIMAL CELL
Morpho-structural and functional differences between procaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

GENETICS
From molecular genetics to genomics.

MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL ADAPTATIONS
Organs functioning in main vertebrate groups. Metabolic pathways.

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
Reproductive biology and embryology.

ANIMAL TAXONOMY.

THE HUMAN BODY
Concept of organ, apparatus and system. Tissues: the epithelium of the skin, the glandular epithelia, the connective, the cartilage, the bone, the muscular and the nervous tissue. The tegument: microscopic anatomy of the skin and of the cutaneous elements. The locomotion apparatus: general characteristics and classification of bones, articulations and muscle. The cardiovascular apparatus: heart, the great and the small blood circulation. Structure of the arteries, veins and capillaries. The digestive apparatus: oral cavity, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. Associated glands: liver, pancreas. The peritoneum. The respiratory apparatus: nose cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. The pleura. The urinary apparatus: kidney and urinary tract. The genital apparatus: morphology and structure of the masculine gonad (testicle) and of the female gonad (ovaio). Ovarian cycle. Decription of uterine tubes, uterus. The endocrine apparatus: general characteristics and structural organization of endocrine glands (thyroid, parathyroid, hypophysis, epiphysis, adrenal glands, thymus, Langerhans islets). The nervous system: organization of central nervous system and its components (spinal cord, encephalic trunk, cerebellum, diencephalon and telencephalon). Main ways of general sensitivity and of motor system. General organization of peripheral and autonomic nervous system. Organs of sense: general notions of the anatomy of the ear and of the eye.

Recommended readings

Solomon, Berg, Martin (2017) Biologia. VII Edizione. EdiSES, Napoli.

Martini, Timmons, Tallitsch:" Anatomia Umana". Edises

Teaching methods

The course comprises 10 credits taught by means of oral lessons and specific seminars. Slides will be projected during classes to fully illustrate all the topics of contents.
In addition, supplementary lessons are provided for those students displaying previous lacking preparation.

Assessment methods and criteria

There will be an oral examination with questions related to the topics taught during the classes. The evaluation is based on questions designed to assess the student's theoretical knowledge about the topics of the lectures, as well as his ability to reason. The final grade is based on the mean value calculated considering the single grades obtained in the two sections.