GENERAL PATHOLOGY

Teachers: 
Credits: 
5
Site: 
PARMA
Year of erogation: 
2021/2022
Unit Coordinator: 
Disciplinary Sector: 
General Pathology
Semester: 
First semester
Year of study: 
3
Language of instruction: 

Italian

Learning outcomes of the course unit

The objectives of the General Pathology course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology and mechanisms and alterations of the innate and adaptive immune response. Great emphasis will be given to molecular pathology, oncology and immunology in order to allow the student to apply the knowledge gained to understanding the mechanisms of action of drugs and to identify new potential therapeutic targets for the acquisition of useful skills for the future profession.

Prerequisites

Getting through General Physiology and Biochemistry/Applied Biochemistry.

Course contents summary

Etiology. Cellular pathology. Molecular and cellular oncology. Immunology and immunopathology. Acute and chronic inflammation and tissue repair. Biochemical and metabolic pathology. Blood physiopathology. Cardiovascular physiopathology.

Course contents

Cellular Pathology
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology
Definition, nomenclature, and biological properties of benign and malignant neoplasms. Classification, grading and staging of tumors. Molecular basis of cancer. Protooncogenes, oncogenes. Tumor suppressor genes. Survival and pro-apoptotic genes. Molecular basis of multistep carcinogenesis. Neoplastic phenotype. Angiogenesis. Tumor progression. Invasion and metastasis. Chemical carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. Carcinogenic chemicals. Radiation carcinogenesis. Microbial carcinogenesis in humans. Genetic predisposition to cancer. Biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.Leukemia and lymphoma.
Immunology and immunopathology
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. Antigens. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Anatomy of the immune system. Effectors of the immune response: antibodies, T helper lymphocytes and cytokines, T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Vaccinations. Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. Hypersensitivity. Immunological tolerance and autoimmune diseases. Tumor immunology. Transplantation.
Acute and chronic inflammation. Vascular changes, cellular events and chemical mediators. Inflammatory exudate and systemic effects. Chronic inflammation: classification, cytological features and granuloma. Tissue repair.
Etiology
Intrinsic causes of disease. The molecular mechanisms of mutations. Transmission patterns of pathological characters. Cystic fibrosis.
Blood physiopathology
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Sickle cell disease. Iron deficiency anemia, Thalassemia syndromes.
Cardiovascular physiopathology
The hemostatic response and its control mechanisms. Thrombosis. Embolism. Atherosclerosis.Disorders of lipids circulation in the plasma. Familial hypercholesterolemia. Steatosis. Clinical manifestations of ischemic heart disease. Hypertension and hypotension. Edema. Pathogenesis of type1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Celiac disease.

Recommended readings

Robbins: Fondamenti di Patologia e di Fisiopatologia. Nona edizione Edra Masson
Robbins e Cotran: Le Basi Patologiche delle Malattie. Elsevier VIII edizione.
Parola M. Patologia Generale ed Elementi di Fisiopatologia EdiSes II ed 2020
Pontieri-Russo-Frati: Patologia Generale.Piccin IV edizione
Abbas A.K. e Lichtman: Le basi dell’ Immunologia. Fisiopatologia del Sistema Immunitario. Elsevier III edizione.

Teaching methods

The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures, with the aid of iconographic material, trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
According to the regulation of the Italian Government and the University of Parma about the COVID-19 pandemics, the present course is realized with frontal lessons via mixed in-presence and at-distance modality. In particular, the teacher takes lessons in the classroom with the help of PC (Powerpoint slides) ; simultaneous connection of the PC to the Teams platform in streaming modality ensures connection with students not present in the classroom. Each lesson is registered and loaded in the Elly portal of the course, together with the slides.
The teacher is available for further explanations in office or by distance via Teams after e-mail appointment, or via chat on Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts. Using the knowledge also acquired in other courses the student must demonstrate knowledge and understanding about the etio-pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases with their related essential notions of semeiotic and medical terminology.
In case the COVID-related sanitary emergence continues, the examination will proceed on the Teams platform (see the guidelines at the address: http://selma.unipr.it/).