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First semester
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Learning outcomes of the course unit

The course of PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACOTHERAPY, contributes to the acquisition of that body of biomedical knowledge necessary to address the problems related to the development and use of drugs. The understanding of the essential elements of general and special pharmacology is aimed at promoting in the student the ability to identify problems related to the use of medications in normal clinical practice. In particular, at the end of the course, the student should be able to:
1. Understanding the mechanisms of drug action, the pharmacokinetic processes to which they are subject according to the different routes of administration, the sources of individual variability in drug response, the adverse effects of drugs (knowledge and understanding)
2. To recognise drug/drug and drug/food interactions, to apply the scientific evidence of the benefit/risk relationship that makes drugs usable in clinical settings (Ability to apply knowledge and understanding)
3. Be able to use the specific language and the slang forms of the discipline (Communication skills).
4. To be able to compare the clinical role of a drug in terms of efficacy and safety within the same therapeutic class. (Autonomy of judgement)
5. To interconnect the different aspects of pharmacology and linking them to other fields characterizing the curriculum (pharmaceutical technology and chemistry) and to be able to continuously update the skills on the basis of the recent scientific literature

Course contents summary

The first part of the course deals with general topics such as: pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, the side effects of drugs and their safety, the sources of variability in the individual response to pharmacotherapy, the process of developing new drugs including pre/ post authorization clinical trials.
The second part of the course deals with the various classes of drugs currently used in pharmacotherapy for the treatment of the most common diseases.

Course contents

- Pharmacodynamics: drug targets, qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug-- target interactions;
- Pharmacokinetics: determinants of plasma drug concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters
- Sources of variability in individual response to drugs
- Side effects of drugs and safety in therapeutics
- Development of new drugs and clinical trials

- Drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system
- Drugs acting on Neuromuscular Junction
- Drugs affecting the Central Nervous System
- Drugs affecting Gastrointestinal Tract
- Drugs affecting renal and cardiovascular system
- Drugs affecting the Respiratory System
- Pharmacological control of Hemostasis
- Pharmacological control of inflammatory and immune response
- Hints of Endocrine Pharmacology
- Antibacterial chemotherapy

Recommended readings

ANNUNZIATO & DI RENZO “Trattato di Farmacologia”. Idelson-Gnocchi, Napoli
KATZUNG BG. “Farmacologia Generale e Clinica”. Piccin, Padova
RANG HP et al. “Farmacologia” . Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano
GOODMAN & GILMAN’S. “Le basi farmacologiche della terapia”. Zanichelli Editore

Teaching methods

Frontal oral lessons are held using slides that will be loaded regularly on the Elly platform (after each lesson) and that will be available upon registration online to the course. Continuing the pandemic emergency COVID-19, the frontal lessons in the presence will be made available also remotely in synchronous-streaming (in compliance with the class schedule) through the MS Teams application, making available on Elly the links to find the recordings of the lessons. In addition, articles published in biomedical journals, institutional guidelines and position papers by scientific societies are also made available on the Elly platform for further study of certain topics.

Assessment methods and criteria

The achievement of the objectives of the course will be ascertained through an oral interview that will also allow to evaluate the communicative skill of the candidate. Through questions regarding the general pharmacology of the course will be ascertained the knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts of pharmacology while questions concerning pharmacotherapy will be able to ascertain the ability to apply knowledge to problems concerning common clinical practice by demonstrating the ability to learn and formulate autonomous judgements. At the end of each oral exam, lasting about 45 minutes, the grade of the test is communicated immediately to the candidate. In special cases, the exam is in written form with open questions. Continuing the pandemic emergency COVID-19 examinations will be carried out at a distance in the same way described above

Other informations

The teacher is available to receive the students all the days after contact by e-mai